Bariatric surgery comprises gastric-bypass and other surgeries for weight loss. These surgeries require changes in your digestive system that help you lose weight. You need to undergo a bariatric surgery when you didn’t see the desired results with a strenuous diet and exercise. You may also have to or for the surgery if you are experiencing grave health issues because of your weight. While some procedures limit your diet, there are other procedures that work by hindering your body’s ability to absorb the nutrients. There are many benefits that this surgery offers. To get success in the long run, you must make permanent alterations in your diet and exercise regularly.
Types of Bariatric Surgery
- Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: It is one of the common methods of performing gastric bypass. Basically, it reduces your diet by cutting down your capacity to eat much at once and reduces the absorption of nutrients in your body. Your doctor will cut at the top of your stomach and seal it off from the remaining stomach. This ends in a small pouch that cannot hold anything more than an ounce of food. Your doctor will cut off the small intestine and sew it to this pouch. When you eat food, it enters this pouch and then directly the small intestine.
- Sleeve gastrectomy: Your surgeon will remove more than 75 percent of your stomach to leave a long pouch behind. A small stomach doesn’t have the capacity to hold food. Ultimately, it produces less ghrelin (appetite-regulating hormone) that brings down your desire to eat more food. There is no need for re-routing of intestines and you can see noticeable weight loss.
- Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch: It is a two-part surgery. First, your surgeon will perform a sleeve gastrectomy like procedure. Next, he or she will connect the end portion of the intestine with the duodenum near to your stomach. This is a duodenal switch and biliopancreatic division. It bypasses a majority of your intestine. It not only limits the amount of food that you can eat but also reduces the absorption of the nutrients.
Causes for Bariatric Surgery
There are various reasons why you may need to undergo a Bariatric surgery. It helps you reduce your weight and thereby reducing your risk of acquiring potentially life-threatening health issues related to your high weight. Your doctor will perform this surgery on you to reduce the risk of :
- Very high blood pressure
- Sleep apnea
- Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
- Heart disease
- Type 2 diabetes
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Guidelines for Bariatric Surgery
The surgery is a major procedure. You need to meet the guidelines for the surgery to undergo the surgery. To qualify for the surgery, you may need to undergo an extensive screening process. You may opt for Bariatric Surgery if:
- Your BMI (Body Mass Index) is 40 or more than 40.
- You are a teenager, your BMI is 35 or over 35 and you are suffering from serious obesity-related issues like severe sleep apnea or type 2 diabetes.
- You followed a strict diet and exercised regularly but were unsuccessful
- Your BMI is 35 or more than that and you have serious health issues related to your weight like high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes or severe sleep apnea.
Evaluation for Bariatric Surgery
A team of health professionals including a dietician, a doctor, a surgeon and a psychologist whether the surgery will be appropriate for you or not. The evaluation will determine if you are ready for the surgery and if the benefits outweigh the risks associated with the surgery. It will as determine if you are psychologically prepared for the surgery. People suffering from imbalanced mental health conditions are at a higher risk and must not undergo this procedure.
While evaluating your health, health professionals will consider:
- Your health- Some health issues may increase the risk associated with the surgery. Sometimes, the problems may worsen with surgery, heart problems, blood clots, nutritional deficiencies, liver disease and kidney stones. The health professionals will evaluate the medications that you are taking and if you smoking or consuming alcohol. You may need to undergo a physical examination and laboratory testing that will determine if you qualify for the surgery.
- Your age- The doctors now state the surgery is safe for older adults aged 60 years or above and for the teenagers having a BMI of 35 or over 35 with serious weight-related health issues.
- Your psychological condition- There are some mental health conditions that may cause obesity or complicate the maintenance of benefits of the surgery for you. These conditions may be substance abuse, major depression, severe bipolar disorder, binge-eating disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and issues associated with sexual child abuse.
- Your nutrition- The health professionals will evaluate your eating habits, weight trends, stress level, motivation, diet attempts, exercise regimen, time constraints and other factors.
- Your motivation- The doctors will see your ability to follow the instructions and whether you make the desired changes in your eating habits and exercise routine.
Pre-requisites for the surgery
You need to prepare yourself for a few weeks before undergoing the surgery. The healthcare team may instruct you to restrict eating or drinking, quit smoking, undergo lifestyle counseling and start an exercise program. You may also need to lose weight before undergoing the surgery. The team may delay your surgery from the scheduled date or even cancel it if:
- You aren’t medically ready for the surgery.
- You have out on weight during the preparation time.
- You did not change your exercise or eating habits.
Risks of Bariatric Surgery
There are some serious health risks of undergoing Bariatric surgery. They may be:
- Leaks in your gastrointestinal tract
- Adverse reactions to anesthesia
- Lung or breathing problems
- Excessive bleeding
- Blood clots
- Rarely death
Complications of Bariatric Surgery
There are various complications surrounding Bariatric surgery that include:
- Dumping syndrome that causes flushing, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting or lightheadedness.
- Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
- Bowel obstruction
- Acid reflux
- Gall stones
- The need for a second surgery
- Death, rarely