Placenta accreta is a serious condition that can occur during pregnancy. In a typical pregnancy, the placenta detaches easily from the wall of the uterus after delivery. However, when placenta accreta occurs, the placenta grows into the uterine wall and does not separate easily after the delivery. When this condition becomes severe, it can even lead to excessive bleeding, which may even be life-threatening. It might require a blood transfusion or even a hysterectomy.
In women, the bladder is normally held in place by a hammock of supportive pelvic floor muscles as well as tissue. When these tissues are stretched or get weak, the bladder may drop or bulge through this layer and into the vagina. This can lead to bladder prolapse, which is also termed a cystocele. The prolapsed bladder may appear at the opening of the vagina as well, in severe cases. Sometimes it might even protrude through the vaginal opening.
A cholesteatoma is a condition in which an abnormal, noncancerous skin growth occurs in the middle ear, behind the eardrum. It continues to grow in size, and therefore if left untreated, it might lead to hearing loss. The condition may be a birth defect, although it is also generally caused by repeated middle ear infections.
Hip dysplasia is a medical condition where a hip socket doesn’t cover the ball portion of the upper thighbone fully. This allows your hip joint to become partially or completely dislocated. Generally, most people with hip dysplasia are born with this condition. Doctors generally check a baby for signs of hip dysplasia shortly after they are born, and during visits. If hip dysplasia gets diagnosed during early infancy, it may be easily corrected using a soft brace. In milder cases, the patient generally does not show symptoms until he/she is a teenager or a young adult.
Breast cysts are round or oval structures that are filled with fluid, which form inside the breast. Around one-fourth of all breast masses turn out to be cysts. However, most breast cysts are benign and therefore they don’t increase your risk of breast cancer. Breast cysts generally don’t require any treatment unless a cyst is large or painful or uncomfortable.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke, which in most cases, is caused by head trauma. In patients without head trauma, it is generally caused by a brain aneurysm. A brain aneurysm is a ballooning of the artery in the brain, which may rupture and bleed into the space between the brain and the skull.
Keratoconus is a condition which occurs when your cornea, the clear, dome-shaped front surface of your eyes, thins gradually and starts bulging outward into a cone shape. The tiny fibers of protein in your eye which is known as collagen help in holding your cornea in place. When these fibers are weakened, they are unable to hold their shape. The cornea, therefore, gets more and more cone-like. The condition is caused when you don’t have enough protective antioxidants in the cornea.
A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor that usually grows in the adrenal glands, above the kidneys. It is also known as an adrenal paraganglioma or a chromaffin cell tumor. It is generally common in adults between the ages of 30 to 50, though people of all ages might have it. Ten percent of all cases are known to occur among children.
Hypermetropia, which is also known as hyperopia or farsightedness is a common vision condition in which you are able to see distant objects clearly but nearby objects appear blurry. People having severe farsightedness may be able to see objects only a great distance away, while those with mild farsightedness, can see objects that are closer.
Achalasia is a rare condition of the muscle of the esophagus or swallowing tube. It occurs when the nerves in the esophagus suffer damage. The term achalasia itself means ‘failure to relax’ and it refers to the inability of the lower esophageal sphincter to open and pass food into the stomach. Due to this, people suffering from this condition have difficulty swallowing food.
Lower back pain is known to affect millions of people every year, and in most cases, it also improves without any surgery. However, in some cases, lower back pain can also be a symptom of a serious condition which may often be misdiagnosed. This condition is cauda equina syndrome, which occurs when the nerve roots of the cauda equina are compressed and disrupt motor and sensory function to the lower extremities and bladder.
A dislocated shoulder is an injury in which the upper arm bone pops out of the cup-shaped socket which is a part of your shoulder blade. Your shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body, and it allows the arm to move in multiple directions. Due to this ability to move, shoulder the shoulder is not only unstable but also the most dislocated joint in the body.
Glomerulonephritis is a condition where the tiny filters in your kidneys, i.e. glomeruli, get inflamed. Glomeruli help you to remove excess fluid and waste from your bloodstream, which is then passed into your urine. This condition can come on suddenly or develop gradually. Both types may be fatal.
Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer that is caused by immature nerve cells that are found in different areas of the body. This condition commonly arises in and around the adrenal glands. However, it may also occur in other areas of the abdomen as well as in the chest, neck, and near the spine, where groups of nerve cells exist.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a kidney disorder, which leads to clusters of fluid-filled cysts forming in the kidneys. This condition can not only impair the function of your kidneys but also eventually lead to kidney failure. It is known to be the fourth leading cause of kidney failure. The disease may cause several other complications, such as high blood pressure and cysts developing in your liver.
When a woman suffers from menstrual periods with abnormally prolonged or heavy bleeding, it is termed as menorrhagia. Around 1 in every 20 women is known to have menorrhagia.
Sometimes, the bleeding can get very heavy, and even require changing a tampon or pad every two hours. It can also mean passing clots the size of a quarter or even larger.
Kidney cancer or renal cancer is any cancer that involves your kidney. Generally, this condition is caused by several factors which can include old age, smoking, obesity, and high blood pressure. Among adults, renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. There are other less common types of kidney cancer as well, such as Wilms Tumor, which is common among children.
Traumatic Brain Injury is a condition which results from sudden damage to the brain, caused by a blow or a jolt to the head. Generally, the common cause is usually a car or motorcycle crash, sports injury, fall, or assault. Sometimes, there might be only a concussion, but in severe cases, there might be permanent brain damage. In mild cases, rest and medication might be enough, but severe traumatic brain injury cases might require rare and life-saving surgery. People who survive a brain injury may face lasting effects in their physical as well as mental abilities. They might also show emotions and personality changes. Some people might need rehabilitation to recover as well as relearn skills.
Acute kidney failure, which is also termed as acute renal failure, is a condition which occurs when your kidneys suddenly stop working. It can happen in just a few hours or days.
This condition is not always permanent, and your kidneys can return to normal function, if you receive immediate treatment right away, and if you are not having other serious health problems.
Inflammatory bowel disease refers to several intestinal disorders that can cause prolonged inflammation of your digestive tract. The digestive tract comprises the mouth, stomach, esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine. It is responsible for the breaking down of food, as well as extracting nutrients and eliminating waste products from the body.
Spondylolisthesis is a condition of the spine, which occurs when vertebrae move more than it should, and eventually slips out of their place. Generally, it happens at the base of the spine. The slipped vertebra puts pressure on one of your nerves, which causes pain in the lower back or legs.
Pectus Excavatum, which is also termed as sunken or funnel chest, is a congenital chest wall deformity, in which there is an abnormal growth of some of the ribs and the sternum. This leads to a concave, or caved-in, appearance in your anterior chest wall. The condition occurs both in children, as well as adults, though it is mostly seen in the early teen years.
Tongue cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the cells of the tongue and may cause lesions or tumors in your tongue. If this condition occurs in the front of the tongue, then it is called ‘oral tongue cancer’. If this occurs at the base of the tongue, then it is termed oropharyngeal cancer.
Wilson’s disease is a rare inherited disorder which can cause copper to accumulate in your brain, liver, and other vital organs. Most people with this condition are diagnosed between the ages of 5 and 35, though it can sometimes even affect older people. The condition is known to affect 1 to 30,000 people worldwide.
Pulmonary Hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that affects your arteries in the lungs as well as the right side of the heart. This condition is life-threatening and it generally gets worse over time. However, treatments can help you to lessen your symptoms so that you can live better with the disease. Although it may take some time, patients are generally able to live life normally, the way they did before their diagnosis.
Rectal Cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the cells of the rectum. Your rectum is located below the sigmoid colon, above your anus. Cancer inside the rectum (known as rectal cancer) and inside the colon (known as colon cancer) are usually referred to together as colorectal cancer. Across, the world, colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer among females and the third most common among males.
Sacroiliitis is a painful condition in which one or both of the sacroiliac joints get inflamed. The sacroiliac joints are located where the spine and the pelvis meet. It is related to diseases that cause inflammatory arthritis in the spine and are often misdiagnosed as lower back pain
A bronchoscopy is a test which can help your doctor to examine your airways. The procedure involves your doctor threading an instrument known as a bronchoscope, through your nose or your mouth, in order to reach your lungs.
This bronchoscope is made of a flexible fiber-optic material and is equipped with a light source as well as a camera. Generally, bronchoscopes are also mostly compatible with color video, which can help your doctor to document his/her findings.
A goiter is a condition where your thyroid gland gets abnormally enlarged. Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland which is located at the base of the neck just below the Adam’s apple. Goiters are generally painless, but if it gets too large, it can make it hard for you to swallow or breathe.
Vulvar cancer is a type of cancer occurring on the vulva, the other surface area of a woman’s urethra, vagina, as well as the clitoris, and the labia.
Vulvar cancer generally forms as a lump or sore on the vulva, which might lead to itching. Although it may occur at any age, it is usually diagnosed in other adults.
The surgery for opening your chest is Thoracotomy. Your surgeon will make a cut in your chest wall between the ribs during this surgery for operating on your lungs. Your surgeon can remove a part of your lungs or your entire lungs through this cut. The Thoracotomy procedure finds its use in treating lung cancer. In some cases, the procedure helps to treat problems with other structures of the chest like the diaphragm or the heart. Doctors also use this procedure to diagnose disease.
Often performed with vertebroplasty, Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure to treat compression fractures or a break in the vertebra. It allows you to move freely without making you stay overnight at the hospital. Vertebroplasty involves injecting a cement mixture in the bone to provide strength to it. Kyphoplasty makes space to allow the doctor to inject the mixture within the bone. Your doctor will insert and then inflate a balloon to make room for the mixture during this procedure. After injecting the cement, your doctor will remove the balloon.
Cardiac Ablation is a procedure that involves the use of energy for making small scars in the tissues of your heart. The energy stops unusual electrical signals that are moving through the heart and causing uneven heartbeat or arrhythmia. The procedure treats atrial fibrillation which is a type of irregular heartbeat. Your doctor will perform Cardiac Ablation if the medications and heartbeat resetting (also called cardioversion) fail to work.
A Craniotomy is a type of surgery for the brain that involves the removal of a part of the cranium or skull for gaining access to the brain. The surgery involves the replacement of the bone. Doctors perform this procedure to treat aneurysms or remove brain tumors. Usually, a neurosurgeon will perform the surgery.
TURP or Transurethral Resection of the Prostate is a surgical procedure for treating urinary problems arising due to an enlarged prostate. Your doctor will insert a resectoscope through your penis tip into the urethra (the tube carrying urine from your urinary bladder). It helps your doctor to view and to remove excess prostate tissue responsible for blocking the flow of urine. The procedure is an option for those men who are having moderate to severe urinary problems and aren’t responding to any medications. It is the most effective treatment, to date, for enlarged prostate.
Also called the reduction mammaplasty, the surgery helps to remove excess skin, fat, and tissue from your breasts. You might go for the surgery if you have large breasts and ease your discomfort due to the same. Additionally, you can achieve breasts of the size that is proportionate according to your body. It helps you improve your ability to participate in several physical activities and your self-image. You must discuss all the details of the surgery with your certified plastic surgeon including the risks & complications of the procedure.
Peritoneal Dialysis is a procedure for the removal of waste products from the blood when the kidneys fail to function properly. The procedure allows filtering the blood in a way different than the hemodialysis or blood-filtering procedure. During this procedure, a cleansing fluid will flow through the catheter (a tube) into a part of the abdomen. The peritoneum (lining of the abdomen) will act as a filter to remove all the waste products from your blood.
Cardiac Catheterization is a medical procedure that allows the doctor to evaluate heart conditions and diagnose & treat cardiovascular conditions. Other names for the procedure are coronary angiogram, cardiac cath, or heart cath. The doctor will check the functioning of the blood vessels and how well they are supplying blood to the heart. He or she will inject a contrast dye into the blood vessels with the help of a catheter. This will help to create x-ray videos of the heart chambers, valves, and coronary arteries.
Esophagitis is a condition that causes inflammation or irritation in the esophagus. The tube that sends food from your mouth to your stomach is called the esophagus. Common causes of this condition include acid reflux, bacterial or viral infections, or side effects of medications.
Aplastic anemia is a rare but treatable disorder, in which your bone marrow, i.e. the spongy stuff inside your bones, stops producing new blood cells. Although in some cases, it ceases making just one of the types, more often, you can end up becoming low on all three types, i.e. red, white, and platelets. This condition can come slowly or develop all of a sudden. This condition can also get life-threatening if your blood count gets low enough.
Adenomyosis is a condition that occurs when the tissue that normally lines the uterus, breaks through the uterus’s muscle wall, i.e. myometrium. The displaced tissue, however, continues to act as normal, thus thickening, breaking down and bleeding, during every menstrual cycle. This can lead to an enlarged uterus, which is heavy and painful, due to which, heavy periods can result.
Myelopathy is an injury to the spinal cord caused by severe compression. This compression may result from trauma, congenital stenosis, disc herniation, or degenerative disease. Your spinal cord is a group of nerves housed inside your spine running almost its entire length. If any portion of the spinal cord gets compressed or constricted, the resulting symptoms are termed myelopathy.
The knee is a complex joint located between one’s upper and lower leg. When the three bones of the knee are out of place and are not aligned in the way they should be, it is known as a dislocated knee. Some people are born with a knee dislocation, i.e. congenital dislocation of the knee. However, most of the time, knee dislocations happen when due to a traumatic event, the bones in the knee joint are thrust out of place with great force.
Varicocele is a condition which occurs when veins in your scrotum get swollen and eventually get larger. It resembles a varicose vein which you can get in your leg, and it can feel like a bag of worms. This condition generally shows up above one of the testicles, most often the left one.
Penile Cancer is a relatively rare form of cancer, which is known to affect the skin and tissue of the penis. This condition occurs when healthy cells in the penis turn cancerous and grow out of control, forming a tumor. The cancer might spread to other areas of the body as well, including the glands, other organs, and lymph nodes.
A brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke that is caused when an artery in the brain bursts. This can lead to localized bleeding in the surrounding tissues. This kind of bleeding is known to kill brain cells. People, who generally experience a brain hemorrhage, have symptoms similar to that of a stroke, and they can also develop weakness on one side of their body, difficulty in speaking or experience a sense of numbness.
Spinal decompression therapy is a treatment, which is considered if you are suffering from lasting back pain, as well as any other related symptoms. This technique works by gently stretching the spine, which is able to change the position as well as the force of the spine.
The Ross procedure, which is also known as the pulmonary autograft procedure, is a surgical technique meant to replace a diseased aortic valve. The procedure involves replacing the person’s aortic valve with a person’s own pulmonary valve. The pulmonary valve is next replaced with the person’s own pulmonary allograft.
Heller myotomy is a surgical procedure which is used for treating the symptoms of achalasia. Achalasia is a procedure that affects the ability of an individual to pass foods and liquids into the stomach. The procedure is a minimally invasive procedure since it uses multiple small incisions instead of a large one. The procedure has a very high success rate, and its effects are also generally permanent. A small number of patients might also require additional treatment.
A bladder sling procedure can help men suffering from urinary incontinence, i.e. loss of bladder control. The procedure has some complications associated with it and is generally recommended for men with mild to moderate urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence usually occurs after prostate surgery, particularly for the men, who require prostatectomy for prostate cancer.
The Nuss procedure is a procedure for treating pectus excavatum. It is a minimally invasive procedure, which was invented by Donald Nuss. Pectus excavatum is a structural deformity of the anterior thoracic wall in which the sternum and rib cage are abnormally shaped. This produces a caved-in or sunken appearance of the chest. It might be present at birth or develop after puberty.
External Fixation is a surgical treatment. It involves rods being screwed into a bone and exited from the body, and then attached to a stabilizing structure on the outside of the body. It is an alternative to internal fixation, where the components for providing stability are completely within the body of the patient.
Our heart muscle needs a steady flow of blood for functioning properly and staying healthy. Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) is a non-invasive method that lets your doctor evaluate this blood flow. The scans can also be used to look for damage after a heart attack and for determining if any previous treatment has helped.
Discogram, also known as a discography, is an interventional diagnostic imaging test. It can help determine whether a specific intervertebral disc is the cause of your back pain. Spinal discs are cushions between the bones of the spine. They are made up of cartilage and a jellylike substance. Their purpose is to act as shock absorbers between the bones in your spine.
A trabeculectomy is a surgical procedure that is used for treating glaucoma. Trabeculectomy can help to lower the intraocular pressure inside your eye, which can help in slowing or stopping the vision loss that occurs due to glaucoma. This procedure helps to create a new channel through which fluid is able to drain from the eye. Restoring the ability of the eye to drain fluid results in the IOP getting lower.
Capsule Endoscopy is a procedure that can let your doctor examine the lining of the middle part of the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the three parts of the small intestine. This procedure makes the use of a tiny wireless camera to take pictures of your digestive tract. The camera sits inside a vitamin-size capsule that you swallow, which travels through the digestive tract, and takes thousands of pictures that are transmitted to a recorder that you are able to wear on a belt around the waist.
Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection, which is known as ICSI, is a technique of injecting the sperm cell into the cytoplasm of the egg. This technique is a specialized form of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) which is used for the treatment of severe cases of male-factor infertility. The treatment involves injecting a single sperm directly into a mature egg. This treatment is generally performed in parallel with IVF, where after suitable stimulation the retrieved eggs from a woman after mixed with the sperm of the partner.
Arthroscopy is the examination of the interior of a joint by using an arthroscope, a flexible, small fiber-optic tube with a small camera connected to a monitor. This can allow a surgeon to get a magnified view of your joint. Specially designed arthroscopic surgical tools are also used to perform various types of minimally invasive joint surgery. Hip arthroscopy, which is known as a ‘hip-scope` is a minimally invasive procedure, in which an orthopedic surgeon examines the hip joint with the help of an arthroscope.
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, known as IMRT, is an advanced type of radiation therapy, which is used for treating cancer as well as noncancerous tumors. This procedure uses advanced technology in order to manipulate photon and proton beams of radiation to conform to the shape of a tumor. The goal of the procedure is to conform the radiation dose to the target while avoiding or reducing exposure of healthy tissue to limit the side effects of treatment.
Cystectomy, which is also known as bladder removal surgery, is a surgery for removing the urinary bladder. In men, having the entire bladder removed usually includes the removal of the prostate as well as seminal vesicles. In cases of women, cystectomy involves the removal of the uterus, ovaries, and parts of the vagina.
A ventricular assist device is a mechanical pump implanted inside the chest of a person, suffering from a weak heart or heart failure. It can help you pump blood from the lower chambers of your heart to the rest of the body. Though this device is mostly placed in the left ventricle, it can be placed in the right or even center.
Endovascular aneurysm repair is a procedure for treating an aneurysm or abnormal enlargement of the abdominal aorta. When the abdominal aorta gets enlarged, there are generally two ways to perform surgery. It might be performed through an open incision or in a minimally-invasive procedure known as endovascular aneurysm repair.
Hemispherectomy is a surgical treatment for epilepsy. In this procedure, one of the two cerebral hemispheres, which make up the majority of the human brain, is removed. There are generally many surgical procedures which can fall under the broad category of hemispherectomy.