What is Down’s Syndrome?
Down’s syndrome is a genetic disorder of chromosome 21, the patient is born with an extra chromosome. This extra chromosome form tissues that affects both mentally and physically. Down’s syndrome is a lifelong condition.
Types of Down’s Syndrome
- Trisomy 21: This is the most common type in which the person has 3 copies of chromosome 21.
- Mosaic Down syndrome: This is the rare form in which a person has only some cells with an extra copy of chromosome 21.
- Translocation Down syndrome: In this type, a portion of chromosome 21 becomes attached onto another chromosome, before or at conception.
Babies born with Down’s Syndrome have the following health issues:
- Feeding issues: Babies born with Down’s syndrome take time to learn how to suck a bottle or breastfeed.
- Heart problems: Babies suffering from Down’s syndrome are born with heart defects that may require surgery within the first year.
- Hearing defects: Some babies may have partial hearing loss.
- Vision problems: Eye problems that require glasses or cataracts.
- Developmental milestones: Baby may reach all the developmental milestones like crawling, walking, feeding etc. a little late.
Children suffering from Down’s Syndrome have the following features:
- Flattened face, small head & short height
- Short neck
- Protruding tongue
- Upward slanting eye lids
- Small ears
- Poor muscle tone & increased flexibility
- Broad, short hands with a single crease in the palm
- Relatively short fingers and small hands and feet.
Treatment of Down’s Syndrome:
Early childhood intervention
This means getting the treatment & support for the child as soon as possible. This includes special education, counselling, therapies like speech or occupational therapy & family support.
Benefits of early childhood intervention:
- includes you and other family members
- offers care at home
- develops child’s skills, as needed
- employs staff with special training in disability
- creates a supportive environment where your child feels comfortable
- giving advice to you and your family
- assesses your child’s progress at regular intervals
Normal Speech Development
It involves early detection & treatment of a speech disorder or language delay. It helps in the development of facial muscles for speech, feeding and swallowing and to help the child learn to communicate effectively.